ASP.NET Memory Management

The common language runtime's garbage collector manages the allocation and release of memory for an application. For developers, this means that you do not have to write code to perform memory management tasks when you develop managed applications. Automatic memory management can eliminate common problems, such as forgetting to free an object and causing a memory leak, or attempting to access memory for an object that has already been freed.

When you initialize a new process, the runtime reserves a contiguous region of address space for the process. This reserved address space is called the managed heap. The managed heap maintains a pointer to the address where the next object in the heap will be allocated. Initially, this pointer is set to the managed heap's base address. All reference types are allocated on the managed heap. When an application creates the first reference type, memory is allocated for the type at the base address of the managed heap. When the application creates the next object, the garbage collector allocates memory for it in the address space immediately following the first object. As long as address space is available, the garbage collector continues to allocate space for new objects in this manner.

Allocating memory from the managed heap is faster than unmanaged memory allocation. Because the runtime allocates memory for an object by adding a value to a pointer, it is almost as fast as allocating memory from the stack. In addition, because new objects that are allocated consecutively are stored contiguously in the managed heap, an application can access the objects very quickly.

In addition to allocating memory, the garbage collector's optimizing engine determines the best time to perform a collection based on the allocations being made. When the garbage collector performs a collection, it releases the memory for objects that are no longer being used by the application.

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